The increase of engine compression ratio promotes the development of fuel oil towards high grade. With the advancement of science and technology, people are paying more and more attention to environmental protection, and automotive gasoline is developing in the direction of high-grade lead-free. Gasoline Engine Gasoline Unleaded Environmental Protection Preface Since the advent of the automobile in 1999, it has undergone many years of development.
In the development of automobiles, people have been constantly exploring and advancing along the two major issues of vehicle operation economy and emissions. The economy of car operation mainly refers to the fuel consumption of the car, the life of the engine and the maintenance cost of the car. The comprehensive application of these new technology products is of great significance for saving fuel, improving the economy of vehicle operation and improving the atmospheric environment.
This article describes the development of gasoline engine vehicles and their new requirements for fuel oil from the above aspects. Increase engine compression ratio to reduce fuel consumption. Automotive gasoline is moving towards high-grade unleaded. The compression ratio is the ratio of the total volume of the engine cylinder to the volume of the combustion chamber. Increasing the compression ratio of the engine can not only increase the power of the gasoline engine, but also reduce fuel consumption. In particular, leaded gasoline, gasoline with a large amount of sulfur-containing benzene aromatics and olefins have brought more and more serious pollution to the atmospheric environment. Therefore, controlling vehicle emissions and protecting the atmospheric environment have become the common voice of mankind.
In the early days, the octane number of straight-run gasoline could not meet the compression ratio requirements of modern gasoline-engine cars. At present, high-octane gasoline is mainly obtained through secondary processing technology and equipment. The octane number of gasoline produced by various process equipment technologies in the refinery. Expresses the relationship between the increase in gasoline octane number and additional capital construction investment in Western Europe. Research method alkane number map * Determination of the best octane number In addition to the use of secondary processing technology and equipment to increase the octane number of gasoline, adding antiknock agents to gasoline to increase the octane number of gasoline is another important way.
Improving the octane number of gasoline by adding lead used to be a low-cost, effective and easy-to-use method. However, lead burned into the atmosphere by cars is harmful to human health. It damages the nervous system of the human body and causes high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases. At the same time, lead will also poison the precious metals such as germanium and other precious metals in oxygen sensors and three-way catalytic converters in electronic fuel injection vehicles. Therefore, automotive gasoline must be lead-free while advancing to a higher grade. Therefore, while people have been exploring for a long time how to improve the economy of automobiles, research on how to control automobile exhaust emissions and protect the atmospheric environment has become an urgent and important agenda.
At present, countries all over the world have established strict vehicle emission standards to control the emission of pollutants. In the 1960s, the U.S. had relatively wide regulations on automobile emission standards. In the 1970s, through improved engines and the use of oxidation-type exhaust gas converters, the emission standards for pollutants were gradually strictly controlled. In the 1980s, the use of exhaust gas three-effect converters, further improvements in engines and the use of new formula gasoline, etc., have made exhaust emission standards more stringent. To this end, the State Bureau of Technical Supervision has recently promulgated new vehicle emission standards. This standard basically follows the European standard system.
Take light-duty vehicles as an example of the emission standard. The implementation of this standard must adopt closed-loop electronically controlled direct injection engines to install exhaust gas three-way catalytic converters and use unleaded clean gasoline. Automotive gasoline must be lead-free. Tetraethyl lead is an excellent antiknock agent, but it pollutes the environment, is harmful to the human body, and is extremely harmful to the three-way catalyst of the oxygen sensor in the vehicle. Therefore, motor gasoline must be lead-free. Compared with economically developed countries, China’s unleaded motor gasoline started late, but the speed of development is amazing. Optimize the composition of gasoline and increase the application of oxyfuel. To realize the unleaded use of automotive gasoline, it is necessary to adjust and optimize the composition of gasoline and increase the application of oxyfuel. This is to further improve the quality of gasoline products and meet the requirements of modern engines. Automobile demand and the main goal of improving automobile exhaust emissions. In the composition of gasoline, sulfur content is a compelling component. Therefore, reducing the sulfur content in gasoline is the direction of continuous efforts in oil refining and processing.
In the gasoline composition, benzene and aromatic hydrocarbons have the best knock resistance. It is not easy to burn completely, and it is easy to generate carbon deposits. Gasoline with a high content of benzene and aromatics will increase nitrogen oxides and photochemical reactants in combustion emissions. Olefins are more active and are prone to deposits on the intake valves of the engine injectors at high temperatures. In order to strictly control the emission of harmful substances in automobile exhaust, people usually strictly limit the content of sulfur benzene aromatics and olefins in the gasoline composition. Compared with the explosion resistance of benzene aromatics, some oxygenated fuels can be used as high-octane components of gasoline. They have a high octane number and can reduce the neutral content of emissions after adding gasoline. At the same time, it improves the emission of vehicle exhaust.
A study by the University of California found that the addition of gasoline does not bring much benefit to vehicle emissions, but it poses great risks to human health. At present, this practice in California is still controversial in the United States. The author believes that in China, no obvious negative effects have appeared, and it will still be an important high-octane component of unleaded vehicle gasoline in China for a period of time. Installation of three-way catalytic converters for external purification devices As early as 20 years ago, the United States had installed three-way catalytic converters in automobiles.
Currently, new cars abroad use three-way catalytic converters. The knowledge corner transforms the three harmful substances in car exhaust at the same time. At the same time that it is oxidized to Wuhelong on the catalyst and reduced to Conghejing by the knife, the emission of harmful substances in the exhaust gas can be reduced by more than 95. Since the catalyst of the three-way converter contains several precious metals (platinum makes germanium susceptible to the poisoning of lead and other heavy metals, therefore, cars with catalytic converters must use unleaded gasoline.
The development of closed-loop electronically controlled direct injection vehicles and the application of unleaded clean gasoline. Today, the prominent feature of the development of automotive technology is that electronic technology enters the automotive engine control system. It is of great significance to improve the running performance of vehicles, save fuel, improve emissions, and protect the environment. Electronically controlled direct-injection gasoline engines were first introduced on airplanes in the 1950s. At that time, it was to solve the problem of ensuring the engine speed and power liters under the condition of thin air. After that, electronic technology in automobiles started from controlling the ignition advance angle and gradually expanded to almost the entire engine’s work control.
The electronic systems that are now being applied and continue to develop include electronic control systems that optimize economy and emissions, fuel supply and shutdown electronic control systems, fuel injection electronic systems, multi-point fuel injection electronic systems, continuous fuel injection electronic systems, and electronic ignition systems. The adaptive electronic system that adjusts the engine function, the exhaust gas recirculation electronic control system, the intake and exhaust electronic control system, the cooling electronic control system, etc. In addition, electronic technology has also entered the driving operating system, and the microprocessor has become an important assistant of the driver. It can report to the driver at any time such parameters as the oil temperature, water temperature, fuel balance, the travelable distance at the current vehicle speed, and the time required to reach the destination.
Because the closed-loop electronically controlled direct injection engine adopts micro-digital electronic technology, it promotes the collection of automobile operating parameters and tightly control the working conditions, thereby realizing the computer self-searching* optimized state operation under all working conditions. Undoubtedly, under the guidance of the sustainable development strategy, electronically controlled direct injection gasoline engine cars will soon replace carburetor engine cars. Compared with carburetor-type cars, closed-loop electronic injection cars have higher requirements for fuel oil.
Not only should gasoline be unleaded, but there are also strict restrictions on the content of sulfur aromatics, benzene and olefins in its composition. In addition, gasoline detergents must be added to gasoline to maintain the engine fuel system (including fuel injection nozzles). The air valve combustion chamber) is clean.
Therefore, we must accelerate the technological advancement of unleaded clean gasoline production, and continue to develop promising unleaded clean gasoline production technology on the basis of the existing FCC gasoline’s deep stable desulfurization catalytic reforming alkylation and M production. , Such as the technology of reducing gasoline olefins, light gasoline, deep etherification of benzene fraction, hydrogenation, saturation, hydrodesulfurization, and isomerization.
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