OMG, millimeter wave is not simple! Millimeter wave radar bearing principle + advantages

Everyone is no longer unfamiliar with millimeter waves, and the applications of millimeter waves are talked about in the streets. For millimeter wave related knowledge, the editor has brought many introductions. The explanation of millimeter wave in this article is mainly to discuss the principle of side azimuth of millimeter wave radar and its advantages. If you are interested in what this article is about to discuss, you may wish to continue reading.

1. Basic principles of automotive millimeter-wave radar

Millimeter wave refers to electromagnetic waves with a wavelength of 1-10mm, which has a large bandwidth, high resolution, and small size of antenna components, which can adapt to harsh environments. The millimeter-wave radar for vehicles usually adopts the FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) radar system with simple structure and low cost, which is suitable for short-range detection. The radar antenna sends out a series of continuous frequency-modulated millimeter waves. The frequency changes with time according to the law of the modulation voltage. It is generally a continuous triangular wave. The transmitted and received signals are shown in Figure 2. The solid line in the figure is the transmitted signal, and the dotted line is the reflected signal of relatively stationary and relatively moving objects. The reflection is the same as the transmitted signal waveform, but differs by a delay time td.


In the formula, R is the target distance, and c is the speed of light.

The frequency difference between the transmitted signal and the reflected signal at a certain moment is the intermediate frequency fb of the mixing output. The frequency shift of the reflected signal from a relatively moving object due to the Doppler effect. The intermediate frequency frequencies output at the rising edge and falling edge of the triangular wave are fb+ and fb- respectively. The following formula holds:


OMG, millimeter wave is not simple! Millimeter wave radar bearing principle + advantages

Thereby, the distance R and the relative movement speed v of the target vehicle are obtained. It can be seen from equations (2) and (3) that the determination of the intermediate frequency fb of the millimeter-wave radar signal is the key to finding R and V. The determination of fb is to perform spectrum analysis on the frequency difference between the transmitted and reflected signals. Signal spectrum analysis mainly includes FFT method and non-FFT method. The so-called FFT method is to perform Fourier transform on the analyzed signal, transform it from the time domain to the frequency domain, analyze it in the frequency domain, and then convert it back to the time domain through inverse Fourier transform if necessary. . The non-FFT method obtains the frequency parameters of the signal through other methods, such as the maximum entropy method, the MUSIC method, and the like. Considering the complexity, real-time and stability of the method, for automotive radar, the FFT method should be the first choice for spectrum analysis. This method is relatively mature, easy to implement, and has strong real-time performance, and is suitable for real-time processing of signals under vehicle operating conditions.


Figure 2 FMCW transmit and echo signals

2. Structure of automotive millimeter-wave radar


Figure 3 shows the structure of a linear frequency modulation radar (LFCW) automotive millimeter-wave radar, including an antenna, a transceiver module, a signal processing module, and an alarm module. The RF transceiver front-end is the core component of the radar system. A lot of in-depth research on the front-end has been carried out at home and abroad, and great progress has been made. Front ends of various structures have been developed, mainly including waveguide front ends, microstrip front ends, and monolithic integration of front ends. The RF front-end developed in China is mainly a waveguide structure front-end. A typical RF front end mainly includes antenna, linear VCO, amplifier, balanced mixer part. The IF signal output by the front-end mixing is sent to the post-stage data processing part through IF amplification. The basic goal of the data processing part is to eliminate unnecessary signals (such as clutter) and interference signals, and to process the mixed signals amplified by the intermediate frequency to extract information such as target distance and speed from the signal spectrum.

3. The principle of millimeter wave radar azimuth measurement

In the field of automotive active safety, automotive millimeter-wave radar sensor is one of the core components, of which 77GHZ millimeter-wave radar is an indispensable key component in smart cars. It can quickly perceive surrounding objects within a range of 0-200 meters in all-weather scenarios. Sensing devices for distance, speed, azimuth and other information. So how does it calculate the position, velocity and direction of the monitored target?

1. Location

The millimeter-wave radar emits directional millimeter-waves in the corresponding band through the transmitting antenna. When the millimeter-wave encounters an obstacle target, it is reflected back, and the reflected millimeter-wave is received through the receiving antenna. According to the millimeter wave band, calculate the time of the millimeter wave on the way & TImes; speed of light ÷ 2 by the formula, and then combine the driving speed of the preceding vehicle and the driving speed of the vehicle, you can know the distance between the millimeter wave radar (the vehicle) and the target The relative distance, and the location of the target is also known.

2. Speed

In addition, according to the Doppler effect, the frequency change of the millimeter-wave radar and the relative speed of the vehicle and the tracked target are closely related. The relative speed of motion compared to the car. Therefore, it is shown that when the sensor issues a safe distance alarm, if the vehicle continues to accelerate, or the front monitoring target decelerates, or the front monitoring target is stationary, the frequency of the millimeter wave reflected echo will become higher and higher, and vice versa. The frequency is getting lower and lower.

3. Azimuth

Regarding the measurement of the azimuth angle of the monitored target, the detection principle of the millimeter radar is: after the millimeter wave is transmitted through the transmitting antenna of the millimeter wave radar, it encounters the monitored object, reflects it back, and passes through the parallel receiving antenna of the millimeter wave radar. The azimuth angle of the monitored target can be calculated by the phase difference of the millimeter wave reflected from the same monitoring target. The schematic diagram is as follows:


The azimuth angle αAZ is the geometric distance d between the millimeter-wave radar receiving antenna RX1 and the receiving antenna RX2, and the phase difference b of the reflected echoes received by the two millimeter-wave radar antennas, and then the azimuth angle αAZ is calculated by the trigonometric function. value, so that the azimuth of the monitored target can be known.

The monitoring of position, speed and azimuth angle is what millimeter-wave radar is good at. Combined with the strong anti-jamming ability of millimeter-wave radar, it can work stably all day and all day. Therefore, millimeter-wave radar is selected as the core sensing technology of automobiles.

Fourth, the advantages of millimeter wave radar compared to lidar

With the popularity of autonomous driving, lidar has been sought after as never before because of its advantages of high precision, large amount of information, and no visible light interference. But we can notice that the current mainstream autonomous driving solutions have not completely abandoned millimeter-wave radar. What is the reason for this?

The first is the weather we all know. The wavelength of laser is much smaller than that of millimeter-wave radar (nm vs mm), so it is not a joke that the haze causes the lidar to fail. For the same reason, the detection distance of millimeter-wave radar can easily exceed 200 meters, while the current performance of lidar generally does not exceed 150 meters, so for scenarios such as highway following, millimeter-wave radar can do better.

Secondly, millimeter-wave radar is cheap. As a mature product, the current price of millimeter-wave radar is about 1.5 thousand, while the price of lidar is still calculated in ten thousand. And because the amount of data obtained by lidar is far more than that of millimeter-wave radar, a higher-performance processor is required to process the data, and a higher-performance processor also means higher prices. So for engineers, in simple scenarios, millimeter-wave radar is still the best choice.

The above is the relevant content of “millimeter wave” brought by this editor. Through this article, I hope everyone has a clear understanding of the azimuth angle measurement of millimeter wave radar and its advantages. If you like this article, you may wish to continue to pay attention to our website. The editor will bring more exciting content later. Finally, thank you very much for reading, have a nice day!

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Global app revenue in the third quarter was $21.9 billion, with the Apple App Store accounting for 65%

According to foreign media reports, Sensor Tower, a mobile application data analysis platform, released a report today saying that global app revenue in the third quarter of this year was US$21.9 billion, an increase of 22.9% compared with US$17.9 billion in the same period last year.

Among them, the Apple App Store app store accounted for 65% of the total revenue, while the Google Play app store accounted for the remaining 35%.

In the third quarter, App Store users spent $14.2 billion, up 22.3 percent from $11.6 billion a year earlier. Google Play users spent $7.7 billion, up 24 percent from $6.2 billion a year earlier.

In contrast, Sensor Tower’s revenue figures are slightly lower than that of App Annie, another mobile app data analytics platform. App Annie also released a report today that global consumer spending on apps in the third quarter was $23 billion, slightly higher than Sensor Tower’s $21.9 billion.

Sensor Tower data also shows that global app downloads in the third quarter were 29.6 billion, an increase of 9.7% year-on-year. Among them, Google Play accounted for 21.6 billion times, which means that Google Play is still the dominant download source of apps.

While overall downloads continued to grow, app downloads in the Chinese market declined slightly. According to Sensor Tower data, the number of app downloads in the Chinese market in the third quarter was 2.2 billion, down 6% year-on-year. Despite the decline in downloads, app revenue in China rose 26.9 percent to $4.1 billion from $3.2 billion a year earlier.

The report pointed out that the slight decline in app downloads in the Chinese market in the third quarter may be due to China’s suspension of game license approvals for up to 9 months. It should be pointed out that Sensor Tower’s data does not include third-party app stores, so it cannot fully reflect the full picture of the Chinese app market.

The report also showed that the world’s most profitable non-gaming app remained Tinder in the third quarter, generating $233 million in consumer spending, an increase of 7 percent from the previous quarter. Netflix came in second and YouTube came in third with $164 million in revenue.

In contrast, App Annie’s numbers are slightly different: Tinder and Netflix are still in the top two positions, but iQiyi, not YouTube, is third.

Based on downloads, TikTok continues to challenge Facebook’s dominance. In the third quarter, WhatsApp topped the list for downloads, followed by TikTok, Messenger in third, and Facebook and Instagram fourth and fifth.

Sensor Tower said this isn’t the first time TikTok has overtaken Facebook. TikTok surpassed Facebook in both the fourth quarter of 2018 and the first quarter of 2019, before falling back to fourth place again last quarter. In the third quarter, TikTok hit 177 million downloads, getting closer to the top-ranked WhatsApp.

In contrast, App Annie data shows that TikTok was the third most downloaded in the third quarter, behind Messenger and Facebook.

Mobile games remained the main revenue generator, generating $16.3 billion in the third quarter, accounting for 74% of total in-app spending. Of the $16.3 billion in game revenue, the App Store accounted for $9.8 billion and Google Play accounted for $6.5 billion.

Overall game downloads on Google Play and the App Store grew 17.6% in the third quarter, from 9.5 billion last year to 11.1 billion.

Based on downloads, the top three games are Fun Race 3D (123 million downloads), PUBG Mobile (94 million downloads) and Mario Kart Tour), although the latter in late September It just launched, but it has been downloaded 86 million times.

PUBG Mobile was the top-grossing game, with revenue of $496 million in the third quarter, up 652% year-over-year. In second place was Tencent’s “Honor of Kings,” with revenue of $377 million. Fate/Grand Order came in third with $354 million in revenue.

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ROHM and Mouser Announce New Ebook on Efficient Power Conversion in the Industrial Internet of Things

Mouser Electronics and ROHM semiconductor have released a new eBook focusing on high-efficiency components and technologies for low-power solutions for Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) applications. The new eBook, Light Up Your Industrial IoT Design, features a series of insightful articles written by industry experts from ROHM and Mouser on topics including power saving, Wi-Fi -SUN wireless communication module and industrial IoT LED.

While IoT solutions have the potential to improve productivity and safety across numerous industries, their deployment can sometimes be limited by inefficiencies in power conversion and utilization. This new eBook from Mouser and ROHM provides valuable insights into how to overcome these challenges and deploy new IIoT solutions with efficient power management components. The paper also describes the use of ROHM components for power and optimization, and how IoT solutions can drive improvements in key processes in the manufacturing and logistics industries.

In addition to trend-setting articles, the Light Up Your Industrial IoT Design e-book provides information and links to 10 ROHM products including the BD71631QWZ linear charger. The BD71631QWZ integrates a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor input to allow the charging process to comply with temperature requirements and can be used to efficiently charge low voltage and single-cell Li-Ion batteries. The BP35C5 ultra-compact Wi-SUN FAN certified wireless module enables designers to build mesh networks of up to 1000 units, enabling secure communications for smart cities and other large-scale applications without complex controls.

The ROHM Semiconductor product line distributed by Mouser includes MOSFETs, power management ICs, IGBTs, LED drivers and a range of other tools for reliable electrification and connectivity. For more details, please visit

To read the new ebook, please click

As an Authorized Distributor Worldwide, Mouser Electronics stocks an extensive inventory of semiconductors and Electronic components and supports Ready Ship™. Mouser aims to supply customers with fully certified OEM products with full manufacturer traceability. To help customers accelerate their designs, the Mouser website provides a rich library of technical resources, including technical resource centers, product data sheets, vendor-specific reference designs, application notes, technical design information, design tools, and other useful information.

Engineers can also subscribe to the free Mouser e-Newsletter with one click to keep abreast of new developments and news in the industry. By subscribing to Mouser’s newsletter, we can provide relevant news stories and references based on your evolving specific project needs. Mouser fully respects the rights of users and gives you the freedom to control the content you want to receive. Welcome to to register and keep abreast of emerging technologies, industry trends and more.

About Mouser Electronics

Mouser Electronics, a Berkshire Hathaway company, is an authorized distributor of electronic components dedicated to supplying design engineers and buyers with new products from manufacturers across product lines. As a global distributor, our website provides multi-language and multi-currency transaction support, distributing more than 6.8 million products from more than 1,200 branded manufacturers. Through 27 customer support centers around the world, we provide customers with localized and considerate services without time difference, and support settlement in local currency. From our global distribution center covering an area of ​​93,000 square meters, we ship products to more than 650,000 customers in 223 countries around the world. For more information, please visit:

About ROHM Semiconductor

ROHM Semiconductor designs and manufactures semiconductors, integrated circuits and other electronic components that meet the needs of the wireless, computer, automotive and consumer electronics markets. ROHM Semiconductor’s comprehensive product portfolio covers everything from audio/video ICs, wireless audio links, image sensors, and noise-immune discretes to storage products using dual-cell technology, energy-efficient power management components, LEDs, and more.

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The Surface Treatment Environmental Protection Of Auto Parts Is The General Trend

The necessity of surface treatment of auto parts

From the perspective of external factors, the increase in consumer demand for automotive performance is a driving factor that promotes surface treatment of automotive parts. The characteristics of the auto parts themselves, such as corrosion and moisture, have also determined that surface treatment must be carried out to improve the overall performance of the car to better meet the consumer needs of consumers.

Main process technology of surface treatment of auto parts

Surface treatment is a process of artificially forming a surface layer on the surface of the substrate material that is different from the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the substrate. The purpose of surface treatment is to meet the product’s corrosion resistance, wear resistance, decoration or other special functional requirements.

The surface treatment of auto parts refers to an industrial activity that performs corrosion resistance, wear resistance and decoration treatments on a large number of metal parts and a small amount of plastic parts to improve their performance and aesthetics, so as to meet the requirements of users. .

With the continuous improvement of surface treatment technology, the surface treatment methods of auto parts are also continuously enriched. At present, there are mainly five ways. They are electrochemical treatment, painting, chemical treatment, heat treatment and vacuum method.

Technology development trend of auto parts surface treatment industry

(1) The application of anodizing technology will become more and more extensive

Due to the technical difficulties in the application of aluminum alloy materials in terms of stamping ductility, connectivity and corrosion resistance, the material cost is also high, and most of them are currently used in high-end cars. The mainstream domestic automobile bodies basically use cold-rolled steel plates and galvanized steel. Steel plate. With the continuous improvement of body weight requirements, the proportion of aluminum alloy used in automobile bodies will increase year by year, and the technical difficulties in the application of aluminum alloy materials are constantly being studied and resolved. The anodic oxidation process is adopted to improve the adhesive connection and corrosion resistance of aluminum alloy parts. With the development of the application of aluminum alloy, which is a lightweight material for automobiles, the application of this process in the field of automobile body will become more and more extensive.

(2) Environmental protection of spraying technology

The pressure of environmental protection urges auto parts spraying to produce products/technologies that are adapted to the environment, pollute the environment or have low pollution, regardless of whether it is technically or in the use of materials. Such as the use of spray-free materials to avoid damage to the environment; the use of environmentally friendly spray polyurethane materials, etc. With the continuous escalation of environmental protection pressure, auto parts spraying practitioners will continue to introduce more environmentally friendly, higher-level spray materials and technologies.

Where is China’s autonomous driving technology?

Autonomous driving technology has never been closer to us than it is now – just as the information disclosed at the China Electric Vehicle 100 Forum at the beginning of this year, the “new four modernizations” of automobiles with the trend of electrification, intelligence, networking and sharing , is giving birth to a “revolution on the road”.

This will bring greater imagination to the automotive-related industry. According to PricewaterhouseCoopers, the development of smart cars will also drive the automotive-based chip, software, information communication, and data service industries to become new economic growth points.

As an important part of automobile intelligence, autonomous driving technology and a series of products and services derived from this technology have been widely valued by industry participants because of the “rich ore” contained in it.

Self-driving cars will create a 2 trillion market in China by 2040

A few days ago, McKinsey & Company of the United States released a report saying that around 2040, autonomous vehicles will account for 66% of the total passenger mileage (PKMT) in China. At this rate, self-driving cars will generate a local market of up to $2 trillion in annual revenue, of which about $1.1 trillion will come from mobility services and $0.9 trillion will come from self-driving car sales. Meanwhile, autonomous vehicles will account for nearly 40 percent of new car sales and about 12 percent of total car ownership.

At the commercial application level of autonomous driving technology, the travel industry will obviously play a leading role.

“This is because cars equipped with such technologies will bring higher operational capabilities (closer to 24/7 operations) and lower labor costs (no driver required),” said Lu Shuai, an automotive analyst at The Beatles Consulting. .

For the same reason, the adoption rate of autonomous driving technology in buses and commercial vehicles is also expected to reach 69% and 67%, respectively.

Lu Shuai said that self-driving cars may change the value dependencies of the current travel market, shifting related value from products to services. In other words, after the widespread application of autonomous driving technology, people’s consumption habits in travel will change from owning a car to paying by mileage.

Today, similar judgments can be found in the Chinese market. “In the current market environment, users’ travel consumption behavior has shown a trend of ‘from buying a complete vehicle to buying by mileage, number of trips and usage scenarios’.” Lu Bin, co-founder and senior vice president of WM Motor When talking about the reasons for the company to take the lead in the field of smart travel, he said recently.

The above-mentioned emerging concept of “Mobility as a Service” (MaaS) will undoubtedly bring earth-shaking changes to the product sales and business models of automobile manufacturers.

In China, fully autonomous driving technology (level 4 or above according to the standards of the American Society of Automotive Engineers) is expected to be fully rolled out within 9-10 years. This time span is close to the average development level of the world’s major automotive markets in the above areas.

“For the current industry players, this period of time for transition is not long, so they must try to integrate into this new business environment as soon as possible.” Independent automotive analyst at the University of Engineering and Technology (UTT) in Troyes, France Liu Rui made the above judgment.

In the entire travel system, the relevant rules of the game will change accordingly. Software and data are gradually replacing hardware, and in the process of manufacturing and operating cars, there is a clear distinction between the good and the bad.

Under such circumstances, a huge industry that brings together automobile manufacturing, passenger and freight transportation, software, hardware and data services seems to have emerged from a genesis explosion.

Perhaps for now, most automakers are still focusing on new car sales, while transportation companies are busy providing related services, and technology companies are silently delivering all kinds of hardware and software to automakers.

In the future, new business models will emerge one after another, thereby changing the value flow of this behemoth industry.

“Technology companies may buy cars from automakers and then provide services directly to end consumers.” Liu Rui analyzed, “Or, automakers may vertically integrate services and software development into the enterprise. This is like At present, several leading companies in the automotive industry are already doing that.”

In 2016, General Motors spent $58.1 billion to buy self-driving car startup Cruise Automation and grow it into a separate business unit. In 2017, Ford announced a $1 billion investment in Argo AI, which focuses on artificial intelligence development, and has since brought it under its umbrella as a self-driving subsidiary. In April of this year, Daimler Trucks announced the acquisition of a majority stake in Torc RoboTIcs, a developer of autonomous truck driving systems, to further advance the application of this technology in the commercial vehicle sector.

Reverse integration also occurs in this area. Apple Inc. confirmed on Wednesday (June 26) that it has acquired self-driving car startup and hired dozens of its engineers to develop related technologies. Uber said on the same day that it had acquired computer vision startup Mighty AI to help advance its self-driving car technology.

“Autonomous driving technology is like a hot soldering iron, melting the seemingly unbreakable barriers between automobile manufacturing, mobility and IT industries, and accelerating their integration.” Lu Shuai commented, “But it also broke the 100-year-old barrier. There are so many rules coming to the auto industry, and automakers have to be well prepared for these changes.”

He believes that in this industry sector, players from different fields must try to dissolve differences in product life cycles and business models in order to eventually form an efficient competition and cooperation relationship.

For example, the life cycle of automotive products may be as long as 4 years or even longer, while for a set of software, the frequency of possible updates can only be calculated in weeks or months. Likewise, the emphasis on product or service should be gradually neutralized and eventually balanced in such relationships.

There is no doubt that many companies have already begun to implement their development strategies for self-driving vehicles, including technology companies such as Baidu, Tencent, Waymo (a subsidiary of Google’s parent company Alphabet that focuses on the development of self-driving technology) and companies such as General Motors, SAIC (25.770, 0.23, 0.90%), the automaker of Tesla.

“But given the dynamic and rapidly changing nature of this industry, such industry players must constantly adjust and update their existing strategies based on actual conditions,” said Lu Shuai.

A survey conducted in May by France’s Capgemini Research InsTItute based on more than 5,000 samples showed that Chinese consumers are more positive about self-driving cars than most countries. In contrast to Chinese consumers, respondents in the U.S. and U.K. were the least interested in self-driving technology, with just over a third of respondents optimistic about self-driving cars.

“Among the global respondents surveyed, 53% of Chinese respondents said that self-driving cars will be their preferred mode of transportation in the next five years. Pay a premium of up to 20%,” researchers at Capgemini Research wrote in the report.

Through a cost cross-analysis, McKinsey believes that autonomous driving technology will reach a mature state around 2023, and its application cost will drop to about $8,000 by around 2025, which also means that the application speed of this technology will be greatly improved by then. .

The “unicorns” behind autonomous driving

However, considering the complex traffic environment in China, the widespread adoption of autonomous vehicles will still face some problems in the short term. For example, such vehicles must first adapt to different road conditions and the relatively intense driving habits of other traffic participants.

However, the key to solving these problems does not lie in vehicle companies. Unicorn companies in the autonomous driving industry chain are making rapid progress in this field.

“So from a technical point of view, there is no fundamental difference between China’s self-driving promotion and other countries in terms of methods,” said Fabrice Provot, who is currently in charge of a software company in Shanghai. Algorithm development related to autonomous driving.

Pouwo said that the computing platforms used to calculate the traffic environment in New York and Beijing are basically the same. “Because existing platforms have enough buffer capacity to handle computational tasks that are more complex than analyzing China’s road conditions,” he added.

Jeffrey J. Owens, chief technology officer and global executive vice president of ApTIv PLC (formerly Delphi), a provider of future mobility development technologies and solutions, introduced to reporters in an interview with Jiemian News earlier. A multi-domain controller developed by the company is similar in shape to a small chassis, but functionally covers the control and information exchange of key components such as radar, cameras, airbags, crash sensors and detection systems.

Currently, in the electrical and Electronic architecture of the car, data is being processed at a speed of about 65M per second, while the multi-domain controller can process 15G of information per second.

“There may be as many as 50-55 pieces of microcontrollers in a self-driving car, but with high-performance processors and large-scale software integration, it is ultimately possible to make information processing more efficient and enable near real-time data interaction, potentially in In the event of a collision, near real-time data exchange is very important,” Owens explained.

As early as 2016, an Audi SQ5 equipped with Aptiv’s autonomous driving solution completed a public road test across the United States without prior route mapping.

On the other hand, the configuration of the sensor does not need to change with the change of the region, because the current sensor can cover all key directions in different driving scenarios.

“The most special thing about China is that its road environment is filled with many highly complex traffic signs. In different regions, traffic lights and signs are sometimes not fully standardized.” Fabrice Pouwo said, “In addition, some Traffic participants do not strictly follow traffic laws, which makes programming self-driving cars more difficult.”

Because of these problems, it takes more effort to optimize decision-making algorithms for autonomous vehicles for Chinese road conditions, Puwo said. Compared with the United States, its development may take about 2-3 years longer.

In view of this, industry insiders generally believe that China’s first self-driving cars will be the first to be applied in specific environments within the next five years, but large-scale applications will not be earlier than 2027. During this period, autonomous driving technology must first adapt to various traffic environments, including urban and rural areas.

“Of course, the core algorithms of self-driving cars do not vary by country. It’s just that China’s complex road conditions mean that self-driving technology needs to go through more tests and obtain more data before it is applied.” Puwo explained.


For example, developers need to collect and input local traffic data to solve the problem of special and inconsistent traffic signs. They must also optimize the motion planning of the vehicle as it moves through the test road, so that the self-driving vehicle can be algorithmically taught how to deal with reckless traffic participants.

“To truly seize these opportunities, industry players need to establish links with end consumers through differentiated services, or master the core components of autonomous driving technology.” Lu Shuai analyzed, “So in this technology, distinguishing Which elements have long-term strategic value, and the latter can be improved over time, will help industry players firmly hold the soul of self-driving cars.”

The burgeoning self-driving car ecosystem differs from conventional car-based mobility solutions because it focuses more on the development of a “technology stack”—a kind of high-tech And the concept that is frequently used in the computer industry, refers to the combination of technologies that use multiple technologies as an organic whole to achieve a certain purpose.

In the technology stack of autonomous driving, the core elements usually include sensors, computing platforms, software algorithms (object detection and analysis, motion planning, etc.), system integration and verification, maps, location-based services (LBS), etc.

In a car, the combination of these technologies will form the core of an autonomous driving system. For automakers, parts suppliers, tech companies and other industry players, they are all key components in creating the self-driving technology itself.

“There is no doubt that in the technology stack of autonomous driving, important elements will continue to be iteratively upgraded over time,” said Puwo. The negative factors of innovation are monitored and assessed in real time, and a quick response is made when necessary.”

At different technology levels, each technology stack has its own unique prerequisites for success, said Puwo. For example, sensors require excellent reliability and safety, and at the same time meet the needs of large-scale mass production, in order to meet the necessary economic requirements through economies of scale.

In the field of software and algorithms, companies must have flexible development skills and the ability to iterate quickly to improve algorithm performance by simulating data on a constant basis. System integration and verification also place extremely high requirements on reliability, safety and mass production capability.

Chinese figure among unicorns

One of the most critical questions for players in the autonomous driving industry right now is how different China’s technology stack is from the rest of the world.

“At present, the final form of this technology stack is still in a highly uncertain state, and the competitiveness of different industry players and the legal and regulatory environment will have a decisive impact on its form development.” Lu Shuai analyzed.

However, many industry players have found through early tests that in China’s autonomous driving technology stack, local and global technology solutions are likely to coexist.

Taking high-definition maps as an example, this technology is considered to be one of the important foundations for realizing autonomous driving. “The industry threshold for high-precision map data collection is very high, requiring professional fleets to collect a large amount of data and requiring strong data processing capabilities, so smaller startups cannot participate in it. Usually, this industry will form a situation similar to an oligopoly.” Technology blogger Shan Yuxiang said.

Currently, in the field of high-definition mapping, mainstream international players include Google, HERE and the Dutch company TomTom. In China, the three technology giants “BAT” are almost “unifying the rivers and lakes”. Baidu, Alibaba’s AutoNavi Maps and Tencent’s NavInfo (16.280, -0.21, -1.27%) occupy absolute advantages in the above fields.

In a typical self-driving car technology stack, certain elements—such as high-definition maps, location-based services, data clouds, etc., are restricted by local regulators for safety reasons. In the industry, such restrictions are referred to as “reverse restriction policies.”

Affected by this, overseas companies cannot participate in the technical aspects of autonomous driving in China.

In China, HD maps are almost always provided by local industry players. The same is true for geolocation-based services and data clouds. However, five technologies, including mobile service interfaces, motion planning algorithms, Internet of Vehicles, central processing and graphics computing units, and sensors, are currently open to overseas industry participants.

Some technology companies with foreign backgrounds are now trying to circumvent the above problems through different technological paths. Nullmax, a technology company founded in Silicon Valley in the United States in 2016, is one such example.

In June this year, the technology company released an autonomous driving system solution called Nullmax Max, the biggest feature of which is that it can achieve L3-level autonomous driving without relying on high-precision maps and lidars.

“Our view is that the smarter the car, the less reliance on HD maps,” said Xu Lei, the company’s founder and CEO. In fact, the Nullmax Max system mainly uses sensors to perceive the external environment, and then uses deep learning to improve the intelligence of autonomous driving, thereby simulating an autonomous driving experience similar to human driving behavior based on a technology called “reference planning”.

The abandonment of lidar is due to the consideration of application cost. “Our set of sensors are all automotive-grade sensors, mainly cameras, and do not rely on expensive lidars. In terms of magnitude, a laser is much more expensive than all our sensors combined.” Xu Lei explained Dao said, “If autonomous driving becomes a technology that everyone can’t afford, it will be difficult to really create value for the public.”

A positive sign for China’s autonomous driving industry players, however, is the Chinese government’s strong support for improving the technology’s local R&D capabilities. The autonomous driving test areas established successively in Shanghai Jiading, Xiongan New Area and other places can be regarded as examples. Such support will undoubtedly play a positive role in nurturing the R&D capabilities of local industry players.

Today, many venture capital groups and mainstream Internet companies have a strong interest in the opportunities that China’s autonomous driving industry holds in catching up with the world.

Over the past five years, local auto and parts companies developing autonomous driving-related technologies have received a cumulative $7 billion in funding. Alibaba, Baidu and Tencent are all investing heavily in these areas and seeking cooperation.

For example, Baidu and Tencent have invested in NIO, while Alibaba has invested in Xpeng Motors. In addition, Alibaba has established strategic partnerships with SAIC, Tencent and many OEMs, while Baidu has relied on its Apollo program to gather many industry players in the autonomous driving value chain.

Abundant disposable funds and high support from the government will have a positive effect on China’s self-driving car industry. The superposition of the two may make the above-mentioned industries show a competitive picture at the fastest speed.

However, some analysts pointed out that China’s autonomous driving industry needs to integrate itself into the global ecosystem to avoid the problem of “reinventing the wheel”.

“For Chinese companies, this kind of integration is very important, because to achieve high-level autonomous driving, the technical requirements are basically very close, so it can be easily transferred between various markets and regions.” Liu Rui said.

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Focus on the “core” opportunity for the development of the auto market! Nanochip has an all-round layout of automotive-grade products;

The automobile industry with a history of more than 100 years is facing disruptive changes. With the increasing maturity of 5G, AI and other technologies, the wave of “new four modernizations” has swept the auto industry, and electrification and intelligence have become the strategic development direction of a large number of auto companies. The upstream automotive semiconductor market is expected to usher in a new growth cycle.

Isolation chip layout under the changing energy market

Different from the short-lived “lithium battery boom” a few years ago, the development of new energy vehicles has already started the “accelerator”. At present, the new energy vehicles sold in the Chinese market are mostly hybrid vehicles and pure electric vehicles (BEVs). A latest report from KPMG shows that the global market share of pure electric vehicles is expected to reach 24% to nearly 40% in 2030, which means that the market for isolation devices, which are essential for new energy vehicles, will usher in an explosion. type of growth.

The isolation market has been monopolized by foreign manufacturers for a long time, and the domestic digital isolator industry started late. Looking at the domestic industry, Nanochip is currently the only supplier of digital isolation chips for all types of energy products in China. Since its establishment in 2013, Nanochip has always focused on mixed signal chain technology. As early as 2015, it began to lay out the research and development of automotive chips. In 2017, it successfully realized the mass loading of medium and high-range pressure sensors on traditional fuel vehicles. In the following years, Nanochip has launched a variety of signal conditioning chips and automotive-grade MEMS pressure sensor chips, which are widely used in oil pressure detection, intake manifold pressure detection, KPS crankshaft ventilation box pressure detection and other scenarios. In the emerging new energy vehicle market, the company has launched a number of related isolation products suitable for new energy vehicle powertrain systems, covering digital isolators, isolation drivers and isolation sampling chip series.

The main functions of isolation include protecting personal and equipment safety, isolating the impact of noise on high-precision circuits, and disconnecting ground loops. The digital isolation chip is considered to be one of the essential key devices for new energy vehicles, and its unique performance of high withstand voltage, high stability and long service life is unmatched by traditional isolation technologies. It is understood that Nanochip’s digital isolation chip series have passed the reinforced insulation certification of the world’s most stringent safety standard DIN VDE0884-11. Products are widely used in various industrial and automotive scenarios with extremely high safety requirements, such as wireless communications, industrial automation, smart grids, new energy vehicles, photovoltaics and other fields.

As of 2020, Nanochip’s entire digital isolation series products have achieved full category coverage, and have successfully mass-produced reinforced isolation chips, which are fully globally competitive in isolation technical indicators.

In addition, the isolation drive series products have been mass-loaded in domestic car factories such as BYD, Great Wall Motor, and Changan Automobile. Isolated current sampling op amp series such as NSi1200/ NSi1300 series can directly replace the original foreign manufacturer’s solution with “pin to pin”. reporters learned from the sales staff that at present, more than five key domestic customers have used this series of products to achieve project introduction. The performance of the isolated voltage detection amplifier NSi1311 series products has also reached the world’s leading level, and has been designated as platform-type projects for at least 5 large car manufacturers.

While the automobile industry is leaning towards new energy, it is also developing towards light weight and miniaturization. The resulting increase in battery energy density will inevitably increase system noise. In other words, the use of isolation devices to reduce noise in the powertrain system and improve control accuracy is becoming more and more important.

At the 2021 Munich Shanghai Electronics Show, Nanochip exhibited more than 50 solutions for digital isolation, signal conditioning, sensors and interface chip products in home appliance control, smart wear, automotive electronics and other applications, including many independent innovative products. The outstanding performance has filled the gap in the domestic market. In addition, around the field of new energy, Nanochip also focuses on releasing a full range of intelligent product layouts applied in the field of automotive electronics.

Comprehensive layout of automotive sensors and conditioning chips

In addition to isolation devices, Nanochip also has a product line of sensors such as temperature and pressure, as well as signal conditioning ASICs. Among them, temperature sensors have been shipped in batches to consumer electronics industries such as communications, storage, and wearable devices. Temperature and humidity sensors suitable for cold chain, smart home and automobile fields are expected to start mass production in August this year.

In addition to the application fields of home appliances, industrial control and detection, and other application fields of pressure sensors, Nanochip has also seen a strong demand for pulling goods from the automotive market. For traditional fuel vehicles, Nanochip’s MEMS pressure sensor chips can be widely used in engine intake manifold pressure detection, fuel vapor pressure detection, and VBS vacuum booster systems. All related products have been mass-loaded in domestic automakers. In the field of new energy vehicles, especially in functional areas such as motors that need to use more sensors, the company has NSPAS1 absolute pressure sensor chips and NSPGM1 gauge pressure sensor chips and other series, which can be used for battery pack thermal runaway monitoring, vacuum booster pressure detection and Seat pressure detection.

At the same time, Nanochip is focusing on developing product lines including magnetic and current sensors. According to reports, the current sensor with integrated current path of NSM 2011 series is currently in the testing and verification stage, and it is planned to be officially released in the second quarter of this year. The car-grade version has begun to sample to customers and is expected to be released in the third or fourth quarter.

In addition, Nanochip’s NSC9262 automotive capacitive pressure sensor conditioning chip with LIN bus interface has passed the test of a large-scale OEM in Shanghai this year.

It is worth mentioning that for applications such as automotive braking systems, Nanochip has launched the NSA(C) 9260X automotive-grade pressure sensor signal conditioning chip. This product line is the benchmark for Belgian Melexis and Integrated Device Technology (formerly “IDT”), which is owned by Renesas, and shipped more than 5 million units last year.

Today, smart cars have become the strategic direction of the development of the global automotive industry. The proportion of automotive electronics in the total vehicle cost is gradually increasing, and it is expected to exceed 50% in the next few years, which will also lead the automotive-grade sensor industry to enter a rapid development channel.

“Core” opportunities born under the advantage of technology

Although the product slogan of “vehicle-level standard” is attractive, a real vehicle-level product must implement strict standards in the whole process from design and development, production and manufacturing to test and calibration, and at the same time, it has a high level of protection against over-back pressure and stability. There are strict requirements in many aspects. Therefore, it takes at least two years for a vehicle-grade product to go from research and development to mass production. One can’t help but wonder, how did Nanochip break through to this day?

It is understood that Nanochip Microelectronics has focused on the field of sensor signal conditioning ASIC since its establishment. Based on ASIC, it has expanded its full-featured sensor product line forward, and expanded its isolation and interface products backward. A complete product portfolio has been formed for the automotive, industrial consumer electronics and other fields. At the same time, the company maintains a long-term exclusive strategic partnership with its foundry, jointly optimizes the production process with the latter, and uses the production line exclusively, further strengthening its own competitive advantage.

In addition, in the practical application of customers, Nanochip can provide a complete set of “calibration system” including software and hardware, which can help customers achieve their goals from sensor design to mass production.

Looking forward to the future, Nanochip will continue to deepen the layout of the signal chain chip product line and continuously improve product performance advantages. With the implementation of the National 6 emission standards nationwide and to cater to the development trend of low-carbon vehicles, Nanochip will also actively focus on the automotive market, such as: enhancing the durability of pressure sensors used in special environments, and introducing pressure for exhaust gas recirculation systems. sensors, etc.

In terms of isolation devices, the company has carried out customized development with domestic head customers since the second half of 2020. These products are all innovated based on local applications. They are not simply complete replacements, and they are not just functional follow-ups, but achieve some transcendence on this basis.

At present, the process of localization and substitution in the semiconductor field is accelerating, coupled with the unprecedented shortage of automotive semiconductors and the shortage of foreign brands, to a certain extent, domestic IC manufacturers with technical advantages and mature product reserves have brought significant development opportunities. . On the new energy vehicle track, traditional car companies, new car manufacturers and technology giants are all gearing up, the market competition is becoming increasingly fierce, and the industry reshuffle is intensifying. The semiconductor track is also expected to open the actual gap.

In Naxinwei’s view, only by insisting on continuous independent innovation and creating product differentiation and extremeness can we take advantage of the “Dongfeng” brought by automobiles and stand out in the wave of integration. It is believed that Nanochip will become the leading supplier of domestic automotive-grade chips in the near future.

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China Telecom, ZTE and Qualcomm took the lead in completing the 40MHz bandwidth dynamic spectrum sharing interoperability test verification in the commercial 2.1GHz (n1) frequency band

In the 2.1GHz (n1) band 40MHz bandwidth 5G NR and 4G/5G Dynamic Spectrum Sharing (DSS) field trials jointly organized by China Telecom and China Unicom, network and chip manufacturers, Qualcomm Technologies and ZTE announced that they have The first to complete the 4G/5G dynamic spectrum sharing interoperability test verification based on the commercial 2.1GHz (n1) frequency band. This test verification is based on the 40MHz bandwidth in the 2.1GHz (n1) frequency band shared by China Telecom and China Unicom, using ZTE’s 5G base station and equipped with Qualcomm Snapdragon? The smartphone-sized mobile test equipment of the X60 5G modem and RF system has been completed, and it has been successfully verified that the use of dynamic spectrum sharing technology has greatly improved the NR downlink peak rate compared with the statically configured 20MHz LTE+20MHz NR. At the same time, according to the operator’s deployment plan, the existing network is equipped with Qualcomm Snapdragon? Smartphones and other types of terminals in the X55 5G modem and RF system will also have 4G/5G dynamic spectrum sharing capabilities through software upgrades.

Compared to 4G, 5G is designed to support a wide range of frequency bands, including high-frequency mmWave (above 24GHz), mid-band (1-6GHz), and low-band (below 1GHz), and can support both TDD and FDD deployment modes . How to deploy 5G based on the frequency band currently used by 4G LTE without affecting the performance of 4G LTE users has become an important issue faced by global operators, and dynamic spectrum sharing technology can effectively solve this problem. It is a new cellular feature introduced in the 3GPP Rel-15 standard release, capable of supporting 5G NR and 4G LTE operating simultaneously on the same frequency band/channel. Dynamic spectrum sharing technology can also dynamically allocate spectrum resources between 5G NR and 4G LTE according to users’ real-time data needs.

The 2.1GHz FDD frequency band used by China Telecom for 4G LTE deployment has good frequency band advantages and coverage capabilities. Using dynamic spectrum sharing, China Telecom can introduce 5G in the 2.1GHz frequency band currently used for 4G deployment, accelerate its 5G deployment in an economical, fast and efficient way, while improving the mobile experience and cell coverage performance of its 4G and 5G users. After this function is deployed, 4G and 5G terminals can access 2.1GHz at the same time, the user experience of 4G terminals is not affected, and the 5G user experience is improved.

At present, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has clearly allocated 2*40MHz (1920-1960MHz/2110-2150MHz) in the 2.1GHz (n1) frequency band to China Telecom and China Unicom for 5G network deployment. In the context of the co-construction and sharing of 5G wireless networks between China Telecom and China Unicom, the 2.1GHz (n1) frequency band will have 2*40MHz FDD bandwidth, which can further improve the service experience of 5G users.

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Tsinghua Unigroup releases GF 12nm process GDDR6 memory controller

IT House News on November 6th According to the news of Xi’an Ziguang Guoxin semiconductor, Ziguang Guoxin officially released the GF 12-nanometer low-power process (GF 12LP)-based technology at the China Global Technology Conference held by GLOBALFOUNDRIES (GF 12LP). GDDR6 memory controller and physical interface IP.

The official said that compared with the existing solutions, the new solution has obvious improvements in chip power consumption, area and cost, and can meet the growing demand in hot areas such as artificial intelligence (AI) and computing applications.

IT House has learned that Xi’an Tsinghua Unigroup’s GDDR6 MC/PHY IP includes a configurable memory controller (MC) that is fully compliant with DFI3.1 and AMBA AXI4.0 standards and allows design engineers to generate features with optimized latency and Bandwidth GDDR6 controllers to meet the requirements of high-performance applications such as graphics cards, game consoles, and AI computing. The IP is optimized for power consumption and performance. Xi’an Unigroup’s GDDR6 physical interface (PHY) provides data rates up to 12Gbps/13Gbps/14Gbps/16Gbps, and is compatible with JEDEC250 and DFI3.1 standards. The physical interface (PHY) section also embeds a high-performance phase-locked loop to meet stringent timing specifications. Integrated with mainstream GDDR6 memory chips, and verified by tape-out testing, the performance of this IP meets design specifications at 12Gbps/14Gbps/16Gbps data rates. And when the data rate is 16Gbps, the average maximum power consumption of each DQ is less than 4mW/Gbps.

At present, Tsinghua Unigroup’s GDDR6 MC/PHY IP has been launched on GF’s 12LP process platform.

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Xiaomi’s “mobile phone + AIoT” dual-engine strategy for one year, Lei Jun set his sights on a farther

On November 19, the Xiaomi Developer Conference (MIDC, MIDeveloper Conference) with the theme of the new era of intelligence was held in Beijing. Through Xiaomi’s developer conference this year, we can see that Xiaomi has a deeper and broader layout in “5G + AIOT”, and also has a more ambitious goal.

2019 Xiaomi Developer Conference Highlights: AIoT

As Xiaomi’s annual developer conference, this conference mainly focuses on “AI”, “IOT” and “5G”, with AIOT being the focus. At the press conference, Xiaomi showed the outside world its many achievements in smart home. Data shows that as of June 30 this year, the number of connected devices on the Xiaomi AIoT platform reached 196 million, a year-on-year increase of 69.5%. In terms of the number of device connections, Xiaomi has become the world’s leading IoT platform. At the same time, the number of users with 5 or more Xiaomi IoT platform devices reached 3 million, a year-on-year increase of 78.7%. In addition, as of the third quarter of this year, the number of households served by smart home products on the Xiaomi platform has reached 55.99 million, with a penetration rate of at least more than 10%.

It is reported that in the first half of this year, Xiaomi’s IoT and consumer goods revenue reached RMB 27 billion, a year-on-year increase of 49.3%, which has become an important source of Xiaomi’s revenue.

In addition to its achievements, Xiaomi also released a number of core technical achievements at the conference, including imaging technology, the new version of the deep learning framework MACE, the Xiaomi natural language processing platform MiNLP, and Xiao Ai 3.0, etc.

From this conference, Xiao Ai’s position in Xiaomi’s AIOT strategy is becoming more and more important. At present, Xiao Ai has been updated to version 3.0, which not only has a new male voice, but also evolved into the first voice assistant that realizes natural continuous dialogue on mobile phones.

Behind the continuous evolution of Xiao Ai is the continuous deepening of Xiaomi AI technology. According to Cui Baoqiu, Xiaomi’s AutoML model has surpassed the industry’s data set performance, and Xiaomi’s natural language processing platform MiNLP is called 6 billion times a day, which means that Xiao Ai is already one of the busiest artificial intelligence in the world.

“Mobile + AIoT” dual-engine strategy for one year, Xiaomi accelerates evolution

While announcing a number of core technical achievements, Lei Jun summarized the implementation of Xiaomi’s “mobile phone + AIoT” dual-engine strategy in the past year.

Lei Jun said that Xiaomi has achieved impressive results in the two product lines of mobile phone and AIoT smart home since the implementation of Xiaomi’s “mobile phone + AIoT” dual-engine strategy for one year. On the one hand, the hot sale of mobile phones has promoted the popularity of AIoT products, creating the world’s largest consumer-grade AIoT network with 196 million connected devices; on the other hand, the rapid development of AIoT platforms has in turn made Xiaomi’s The mobile phone brand has achieved a higher value proposition. On Double 11, which ended not long ago, the sales of Xiaomi mobile phones on all platforms exceeded 1.05 million units. The world’s first 100-megapixel mass-produced model Xiaomi CC9 Pro, 5G mobile phone Xiaomi 9Pro and Redmi K20Pro were all very popular, proving that Xiaomi mobile phones The dual-brand strategy has been successful.

In addition, Xiaomi has become more open since the implementation of the “mobile phone + AIoT” dual-engine strategy for a year. For example, Xiaomi’s mobile deep learning framework MACE has been open sourced. In June 2019, Dr. Cui Baoqiu, Vice President of Xiaomi Artificial Intelligence and Cloud Platform, announced the open source MACE to empower China’s AI industry and allow all engineers, developers, and technology enthusiasts who are interested in deep learning on mobile to apply Xiaomi’s technology . It is reported that Xiaomi’s MACE-Kit, which benchmarks against Google’s ML-Kit, will also be open sourced in the near future.

It should be said that Xiaomi’s progress in AIOT has been very obvious in the past year with the “mobile phone + AIoT” dual-engine strategy. Xiaomi has proved that its star business is not only mobile phones, it is accelerating its evolution.

AIOT: Lei Jun’s eyes are in the distance

At this Xiaomi Developer Conference, Lei Jun also proposed a new concept – “5G + AI + IoT Super Internet”. Lei Jun said at the conference that the “5G+AIOT” strategy should be used to promote the development of the next-generation super Internet.

Brother Xi believes that Lei Jun’s “5G + AI + IoT Super Internet” shows that Xiaomi has broken away from traditional concepts such as smart home and Internet of Things, and has achieved a breakthrough in thinking. It also means that Xiaomi AIOT has a clearer development direction.

Xiaomi has not only realized the innovation of thinking in AIOT, but also at the specific business level, Lei Jun has also set his sights further afield. At this conference, Xiaomi not only released chips such as Xiaomi IoTBLEMesh module, Zigbee3.0 module, Wi-Fi + Bluetooth dual-mode module, Xiaomi Mijia smart multi-mode gateway and Aqara smoke alarm. In addition, Xiaomi has launched several solutions for enterprise-level customers.

For example, the Xiaomi smart hotel solution, which is based on four IoT categories such as Xiaoai speakers, TV, and lighting, can be connected to more than 2,000 Mijia products, and can be configured from many aspects such as gateway, lighting, and temperature control. , with a customized software platform and nationwide service deployment and after-sales; similar to Xiaomi’s smart real estate solution, in addition to most smart devices in the room, it can also open up community devices, such as access control, parking, elevators, walkie-talkies, etc. The scope of smart living has been expanded to a larger scope; in addition, Xiaomi has also launched an IoT enterprise suite to facilitate corporate customers to centrally control purchased purifiers, air conditioner temperature controls, switches and other equipment through a unified B-end account .

In the development of AIOT, Lei Jun’s operational ideas have shifted from professional services to C-end customers to both B and C, and to develop synchronously. Xiaomi’s overall AIOT strategy also has a further goal.

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Power IC design manufacturer “Sirius Core” received tens of millions of RMB in Series A financing

Shenzhen Tianlangxin semiconductor Co., Ltd. recently announced that it has received tens of millions of RMB in Series A financing. This round of financing was led by Qingdao Dayou Capital, followed by Chuangxiang Investment. The funds will be mainly used for wafer procurement, product production, expansion of the R&D team and marketing.

Sirius Core is a Fabless (fabless chip designer) startup company focusing on high-performance domestic power semiconductor chips. Its main products are wide-bandgap power devices based on the third-generation semiconductor materials GaN (gallium nitride) series and SiC (silicon carbide) series, as well as IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor), which can be widely used in industrial, 4C (communication, Computers, consumer electronics, automotive electronics), aerospace, defense and military industries and other traditional industries, as well as strategic emerging industries such as rail transit, new energy, smart grids, and new energy vehicles.

For the GaN field, Sirius Core has completed the research and development of power devices for 650V (45W, 60W, 90W, 120W) power adapters, and will continue to expand the development of 650V (150W, 200W) in the future, as well as the development of fully integrated GaN solutions. R&D. For the SiC field, Sirius can currently provide MOS and diode products for high power density scenarios, such as new energy vehicles, charging piles, and has completed the research and development of 650V/1200V SiC diodes and 1200V SiC planar MOS tubes.

In terms of power device products based on the first-generation silicon-based semiconductors, the MOS tubes and IGBT modules produced by Sirius Core have been mass-produced in cooperation with wafer fabs: for consumer electronics scenarios, the company mainly produces 20V~150V MOS tubes. ; For application scenarios such as rail transit and new energy vehicles in the industrial field, the company’s IGBT modules can cover voltage products from 650 volts to 6500 volts.

According to reports, members of the company’s core R&D team have worked in core semiconductor companies such as TSMC, Broadcom, MediaTek, and Intel, and all have rich experience. The founder and CEO Zeng Jianzhong worked in Broadcom in the United States. He was the head of the 55nm-16FF process in TSMC’s single-person 0.13BCD and the head of the technical team at Huawei’s 2012 laboratory. He has dozens of global technology patents.

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